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Written by webtechs

Why Does A Float Switch Fail?

Why Do Sump Pump Float Switches Fail?

 

A float switch failure in a sump pump can occur due to various reasons, including:

  1. Mechanical Failure: Over time, the mechanical components of the float switch, such as the float arm or switch mechanism, can wear out or become damaged, leading to failure. This can result from normal wear and tear, corrosion, or exposure to debris or sediment in the sump pit.
  2. Sticking or Binding: If the float switch mechanism becomes stuck or binds due to debris, sediment buildup, or improper installation, it may fail to move freely and activate the pump when the water level rises in the sump pit.
  3. Electrical Issues: Electrical problems, such as loose connections, damaged wiring, or electrical shorts, can prevent the float switch from sending the signal to activate the pump motor. These issues may arise from poor installation, exposure to moisture or corrosion, or electrical malfunctions.
  4. Float Positioning: Incorrect positioning or adjustment of the float switch within the sump pit can affect its ability to accurately detect water levels and activate the pump. If the float is positioned too high or too low, it may not engage or disengage the switch at the appropriate water level.
  5. Float Switch Design: Some float switches may be prone to design flaws or manufacturing defects that can affect their reliability and performance. Choosing a high-quality float switch from a reputable manufacturer can help minimize the risk of failure due to design or manufacturing issues.
  6. Environmental Factors: Environmental factors such as extreme temperatures, exposure to chemicals or corrosive substances, or debris in the sump pit can impact the operation of the float switch and contribute to premature failure.
  7. Lack of Maintenance: Regular maintenance and inspection of the sump pump system, including cleaning the sump pit, checking the float switch operation, and ensuring proper installation, can help prevent float switch failures and prolong the life of the pump.
  8. Age and Wear: Like any mechanical or electrical component, float switches can degrade over time due to age, use, and exposure to environmental conditions. Replacing the float switch periodically or as part of routine maintenance can help prevent unexpected failures and ensure reliable operation of the sump pump system.

Overall, ensuring proper installation, regular maintenance, and choosing a high-quality float switch are essential steps in preventing float switch failures and maintaining the effectiveness of the sump pump system.

Understanding and Mitigating Environmental Impacts on Float Switches

Understanding and mitigating environmental impacts on float switches is crucial for ensuring their reliable operation in sump pump systems. Here are some key considerations:

  1. Corrosion Resistance: Choose float switches made from corrosion-resistant materials such as stainless steel, polypropylene, or PVC to withstand exposure to moisture, chemicals, and corrosive substances commonly found in sump pits.
  2. Sealing and Encapsulation: Ensure that float switches are properly sealed and encapsulated to protect internal components from water ingress, moisture, and environmental contaminants. Sealed designs and epoxy potting can enhance durability and reliability in harsh environments.
  3. Environmental Compatibility: Consider the specific environmental conditions present in the sump pit, such as temperature extremes, humidity levels, and exposure to chemicals or debris. Select float switches rated for the intended operating conditions to minimize the risk of damage or malfunction.
  4. Debris Management: Implement measures to prevent debris, sediment, or foreign objects from interfering with float switch operation. Regular cleaning and maintenance of the sump pit can help prevent buildup and obstruction around the float switch mechanism.
  5. Proper Installation: Ensure proper installation of the float switch according to manufacturer guidelines and best practices. Position the float switch securely in the sump pit, away from obstructions, and adjust the float arm or switch mechanism to achieve reliable activation and deactivation at the desired water level.
  6. Protective Shields or Guards: Install protective shields or guards around the float switch to prevent damage from floating debris, large objects, or accidental impact. These shields can help shield the float switch from physical damage while allowing unimpeded movement for reliable operation.
  7. Regular Inspection and Maintenance: Conduct regular inspection and maintenance of the float switch and sump pump system to identify and address any signs of wear, damage, or environmental degradation. Clean the float switch and sump pit, check for proper operation, and replace worn or damaged components as needed.
  8. Monitoring and Alarm Systems: Install monitoring and alarm systems to alert users to potential float switch failures or sump pump malfunctions. High water level alarms, backup float switches, or remote monitoring systems can provide early warning of issues and facilitate timely intervention to prevent flooding or water damage.

By addressing these environmental factors and implementing appropriate mitigation measures, you can help maximize the reliability, durability, and effectiveness of float switches in sump pump systems, reducing the risk of failure and ensuring continuous protection against water intrusion and flooding.

Types of Sump Pumps and Switches
Written by webtechs

Types of Sump Pumps and Switches

Sump pumps and their trusty companions, the switches, work together to keep your basement or crawl space safe from watery woes. Read on to learn more!

Sump Pump Types:

  • Submersible Pumps: These workhorses live and breathe underwater! They sit in the sump pit directly, using an electric motor to power an impeller that forces water out through a discharge pipe. Submersibles are efficient, quiet, and ideal for most residential applications.
  • Pedestal Pumps: These prefer dry land! The motor sits atop a pedestal outside the sump pit, connected to the pump impeller by a long shaft. Pedestal pumps are less prone to clogging but can be louder and take up more space.

Sump Pump Switch Types:

  • Tethered Float Switches: The classic! A buoyant float attached to the pump by a tether rises with the water level, eventually pulling a lever or activating a micro-switch to turn on the pump. Simple and reliable, but prone to snags and require space for the tether’s movement.
  • Vertical Float Switches: These sleek operators use a rod and float mechanism directly within the sump pit. As the water rises, the rod pushes against a lever to activate the switch. More accurate and discreet than tethered floats, but may require specific sump pit dimensions.
  • Diaphragm Switches: These pressure-sensitive marvels utilize a diaphragm that flexes with rising water, pushing against a switch internally. No moving parts in the water, making them clog-resistant and suitable for dirty or sandy water.
  • Electronic Switches: High-tech heroes for the sump pump world! These rely on sensors like pressure sensors or ultrasonic sensors to detect water level changes and activate the pump. Offer precise control and advanced features, but can be pricier and require proper installation.

Choosing the Right Combination:

The ideal duo for your sump pump system depends on your needs and preferences. Consider factors like:

  • Sump pit dimensions and configuration.
  • Water level fluctuation and expected debris levels.
  • Desired noise level and budget.
  • Need for advanced features like automatic backup or alarm systems.

Consulting a qualified plumber or sump pump specialist can help you choose the perfect sump pump and switch combination for your specific situation, ensuring a dry and worry-free basement for years to come

Why Choose Water Line Controls

All of our water level controls and water level control systems are assembled right here in the U.S.A. where we monitor every step of the process.

Sump Pump Float Work
Written by webtechs

Selecting The Right Sump Pump

Sump Pump Float Work

Pumps vary widely in quality. Pumps are used in a variety of applications, such as chemical vats, fuel depots, and swimming pools, but each one may present a different set of difficulties. The U.S. Department of Energy suggests the following factors to think about when choosing a pump:

Fluid: Pumps that weren’t designed for the job can be destroyed by chemicals and fuels. Select a pump that is made to handle the fluid’s corrosiveness and consistency to prevent degradation or clogging from slurry or debris. Similar to this, be aware of the fluid’s viscosity to make sure the pump has sufficient force to draw the liquid through.

Calculate the desired flow rate by dividing the total volume by the desired transit time for the liquid. For instance, if a 500-gallon pond requires full circulation once every hour, you should choose a pump with a 500 GPH minimum rated flow rate (gallon per hour).

Although pumps can function in a wide range of temperatures, if you are working with liquids that are hotter than 200°F, make sure the pump is rated for the highest liquid temperature you will be pumping.

Vapor pressure: The force per unit area that a fluid exerts when changing from a liquid to a vapor is known as vapor pressure, and it can be used to reduce the risk of cavitation by making sure the pump is rated for it.

Choosing a Pump from a Variety of Types

You can start comparing your options for pumps once you know the materials they must handle and the capabilities they need. The most typical pump designs and operating principles available today are listed below:

Centrifugal pumps: A centrifugal pump draws fluid into one or more impellers, such as a paddle wheel or propeller, to maintain a steady flow of a large volume of fluid at high speed. It can be used to pump a variety of low viscosity liquids, including those containing solid components like wastewater, and is one of the most popular pumping systems. A wide range of industries, including agriculture, water utilities, industry, power generation, petroleum, mining, and more, use centrifugal pumps.

Diaphragm pumps: Also called membrane pumps, a diaphragm pump is a device that moves fluid by a series of diaphragms moving back and forth. In a cycle, fluid is forced out of one chamber as it enters the other. These pumps are useful for pumping liquids with high solid content or high viscosity, such as chemicals, paints, or syrups, because there are no moving parts within the diaphragm chambers themselves.

Pumps that circulate fluids within a system are used instead of pumps that move liquid from one location to another. In order to ensure that the hot water is evenly distributed with the incoming cold water and to maintain a constant temperature, circulating pumps are frequently used in water heating systems. A circulating pump can also be used to evenly distribute chemicals that have been mixed into a container or to move water around a pond to oxygenate the water.

Pumps for moving oil, fuel, and other materials from one container to another, such as transferring fuel from a tank into large machinery, are known as fuel and oil transfer pumps. Oil transfer pumps are made for use with high viscosity fluids and are toughly constructed for higher flow rates.

Pumps for chemicals: Chemical pumps are made specifically for the creation, use, and disposal of chemicals. They are constructed of corrosion-resistant materials like glass, rubber, plastic, rubberized steel, titanium, and stainless steel. Use a pump made specifically for the chemical you want to pump because different chemicals have different corrosive effects on materials.

Drum pumps: These pumps are designed to help you suction out fluids from drums, barrels, pails, and totes to reduce the risk of spills when pouring the container or to draw fluids out of a heavy container. Hand-powered pumps are useful for low-volume or remote pumping applications where electricity is not available, whereas electric-powered pumps are useful for tasks requiring high volume transfer. A pneumatic pump that runs on compressed air is a good choice if you need higher flow rates than a hand-powered pump and more precise flow control than an electric drum pump without electricity.

Sump pumps are set off automatically once the water level in the sump pit gets to a predetermined height. A homeowner can calibrate the pump to start at any depth they wish by adjusting the float device of the sump pump.

Water runoff and/ or seeping water is collected inside the sum pit. As the water gathers, a float rises as the water level rises. The float has control of an on/ off switch for the pump. Once the float rises to a predetermined height, the pump turns on. The pump continues to function until the float falls low enough to disconnect the switch. The pump is inactive once more until the water level increases again.

Types of Sump Pump Floats

Different types of floats are used by different types of sump pumps. Pedestal pumps will typically have a bulb type float connected to a metal rod that turns on the pump motor’s switch. Other types of pumps utilize floats attached to arms that will raise and lower as the water level rises and lowers. A tethered float is a float that is attached to the pump utilizing a tethering mechanism.

Old Sump Pump Float Working Principle

When the water level rises, the float will rise too. As the float rises the tether steadily releases. The tether is predetermined to start the pump when a specific amount of tether gets released. When the water levels lower, the tether becomes loose and the float falls back to its starting position.

New Sump Pump Float Working Principle

Float switches and water level controls typically start out open, meaning there are no alarms that are required to be activated since the water level is at its lowest.

  1. When the cooling tower stops using the water for its industrial operations, the water level starts to rise. No alarms have been activated up to this point.
  2. When the water level reaches the probes, a signal is transferred between the probes informing the high alarm to activate.
  3. When the high alarm is activated it can be programmed to tell the fill to stop filling up the water.
  4. Finally, when the water reached the predetermined limit, the fill stop kicks in and the process starts all over again.

With correct maintenance, your cooling tower float switches could last for years of operating. A lot of float switch failures typically occur due to degrading, wearing out, or fouling. Cooling tower coatings can safeguard the storage tanks, but what is safeguarding the float switches? Our water level controls can replace your old float switches once and for all and won’t degrade, wear out, or foul, because of any water quality.

Why Choose Water Line Controls

All of our water level controls and water level control systems are assembled right here in the U.S.A. where we monitor every step of the process.

Types of Metering Devices
Written by webtechs

What is a Water Pumping Station?

A water pumping station, often referred to as a pump station, is a critical infrastructure component in the distribution of clean water for various purposes, including drinking water, industrial processes, irrigation, and firefighting. Its primary function is to pump and distribute water from a source, such as a well, reservoir, river, or treatment plant, to the local water supply system or other designated locations. Water pumping stations are essential for maintaining adequate water pressure and ensuring a reliable supply of water to communities and facilities. Here are some key features and functions of a typical water pumping station:

Key Components and Functions:

  1. Pumps: Water pumping stations are equipped with electric, diesel, or other types of pumps designed to lift and transport water from the source to the distribution network. These pumps can vary in size and capacity based on the station’s requirements.
  2. Suction and Discharge Pipelines: Water is conveyed through a network of suction and discharge pipelines. Suction pipes draw water from the source, while discharge pipes deliver it to the distribution system. Valves and control systems are used to manage the flow and pressure.
  3. Water Source: The source of water can vary and may include wells, rivers, reservoirs, or treatment plants. The choice of source depends on the location and the quality of the water required.
  4. Reservoirs or Tanks: Some water pumping stations include storage reservoirs or tanks that serve as intermediate storage to stabilize the flow and pressure in the distribution system. These reservoirs help meet peak demand and provide system redundancy.
  5. Control and Monitoring Systems: Advanced control systems, sensors, and monitoring equipment are essential to regulate pump operations, maintain desired pressure, and monitor water quality. These systems can be remotely controlled and monitored.
  6. Emergency Power Supply: Many water pumping stations have backup power sources, such as generators, to ensure continuous operation during power outages or emergencies.
  7. Water Treatment: In some cases, water pumping stations may include water treatment processes to ensure water quality meets drinking water standards. These treatment processes can include filtration, disinfection, and chemical dosing.

Types of Water Pumping Stations:

  1. Booster Pumping Stations: These stations are used to increase the pressure of water within a distribution system, ensuring that water reaches all consumers at adequate pressure levels.
  2. Transfer Pumping Stations: Transfer stations are responsible for moving water from one location to another, such as from a storage reservoir to a distribution system.
  3. Lift Pumping Stations: Lift stations are primarily used in wastewater systems to lift sewage or wastewater from a lower elevation to a higher one, allowing for gravity-based conveyance.
  4. Well Pumping Stations: These stations draw water from wells and are commonly used in rural areas or locations where groundwater is the primary water source.

Water pumping stations play a crucial role in maintaining a reliable water supply for residential, industrial, and commercial use. They ensure that communities have access to safe drinking water and support various industrial processes and agriculture. These facilities require regular maintenance and monitoring to ensure the efficient and uninterrupted operation of water distribution systems.

Water pumping stations are devices that can be used to move water from one location to another without the direct involvement of people or animals. These machines may circulate water in treatment systems, supply water to canals, and even drain water from low-lying land.

In these kinds of applications, water pumps are typically only taken into account if simple gravity-based drainage is not an option. It is uncommon to utilize water pumping stations to remove water from high sites because it is frequently more simpler to just dig a canal and allow the water flow naturally downhill to the appropriate gathering area. On the other hand, water pumping stations that transport water to elevated sites are fairly prevalent. Water pumping stations are necessary in this situation because, for instance, residents who live on hillsides must transport the water they use to their homes uphill.

What Function Do Water Pumping Stations Serve?

The pumping station needs to produce enough pressure to drive the water against gravity. When this pressure is reached, there will be sufficient pressure to transfer liquid at the required flow rate. This is a straightforward mathematical equation, and pumps are made to be programmable in order to make changing the water flow rate simple. The necessary data is entered into an electronic controller that is either directly connected to the pumping station itself or controlled from a remote location. The calculation takes into consideration all of the pipes (including their size), new fittings, elevation changes, and any other elements that can have an impact on the water system’s pressure.

When determining the pressure required to overcome the system pressure and start the water flowing, it’s important to take into account the dimensions of the pipe entrance, any directional changes in the piping (such as 45- and 90-degree bends), various types of valves, as well as the dimensions of any outlets along the system. The many qualities of the liquid that is to be pumped must be considered in this computation. Therefore, it’s important to consider the amount of friction that water causes on the piping as well as the roughness factor. Water and other liquids will have very little friction, but sewage and chemicals may be aggressive and require more force to pass through the pipeline.

Regulatory Issues Regarding Water Pumping Stations

Older water pumping stations may be found on many people’s properties in England and Wales, either directly beneath them or nearby. In the past, local governments or private owners constructed these devices. However, in England and Wales, legislation was approved in 2016 that gave local water companies ownership of private pumping stations. There are several outdated pumps that require extensive maintenance. Many of them were constructed during the Victorian era, and some of them are now protected historical landmarks.

The challenge of locating and cataloguing every pumping station in England and Wales is challenging, and surveying work is still being done today. If you have a pumping station on your property, it could be worthwhile to find out if the upkeep is the responsibility of the neighborhood water company.

Risk Reduction Through Water Pumping

Numerous threats to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors can be reduced with the use of water pumps. Lack of pumping causes stagnant water to accumulate in sewer systems, where it can harbor bacteria and diseases. In such a condition, hazardous gasses like hydrogen sulfide can accumulate and pose a serious risk to the populace if ingested. There is little risk of gasses building up as a result of stagnation because sufficient pumping ensures that the raw sewage is moving at a steady flow.

In densely populated places, insufficient pumping can also cause water to surge up from the system and flood basements and ground floors of buildings.

In the United Kingdom, water pumping stations are used to move water along canals, move groundwater, move water for hydraulic power plants, and provide public water supply and sewage services.

Why Choose Water Line Controls

All of our water level controls and water level control systems are assembled right here in the U.S.A. where we monitor every step of the process.

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Written by webtechs

Signs You Need To Replace Your Sump Pump

Signs You Need To Replace Your Sump Pump

If your sump pump is old, keep an eye out for these five indicators to determine whether it’s time to replace it.

SUMP PUMP IS ALWAYS RUNNING

No matter the weather or the level of the water, if your sump pump keeps running, there may be a serious problem with your pump. The sump pump’s motor is put under undue strain when it continues to run even after the basin has been completely empty of water. The pump can quickly overheat if it is operating without any water because the water helps cool the pump down. Your pump will overwork itself to the point of premature failure if this issue continues. Overextended sump pumps are a fairly common issue that can be caused by a number of different things. Incorrect sump pump size is one of the most common causes of an endlessly running pump. If the pump is too small for your basin, it won’t be able to move the water around as much as it should. When a pump is too big for the basin, it will have to work harder because the water will fill the basin more quickly and the pump may eventually run dry.

The occurrence of a float switch stuck in the “on” position is another frequent cause. Lightweight devices called float switches are made to float higher when the water level in the sump pit rises. The pump is triggered to turn on when the float switch reaches a specific height and to turn off when the water levels drop. In the event that the float switch becomes stuck or tangled, the pump can still function. The switch can be caught by wires, pipes, or debris, which will turn it to the on position. An incorrectly placed sump pump could move around in the basin, pressing the switch up against the pit’s wall and starting an endless loop. The switch may break, lose its connection to the power supply, or get stuck on the basin’s sides. Checking the float switch should be your first step if the pump is running nonstop.

SPEAKING OUT

An abnormally noisy motor on a sump pump is a sign that the motor is nearing its end of life. If your pump is an outdated plastic model, it’s time to upgrade to a new system. Think about replacing that pump with a self-lubricating cast-iron one. Both dependability and maintenance requirements are lower for these pumps. Additionally, cast-iron pumps have a lower chance of overheating, extending their lifespan and preserving them. Modern pumps can have their failing motor replaced without needing to have the entire pump replaced. Pedestal sump pumps are equipped with motors positioned around the basin, connected to the pump within via tubing. Because these pumps aren’t submerged, they typically last longer, but they also make a lot more noise. They have the ability to produce noise that echoes through your basement. Submersible sump pumps are more successful at preventing basement flooding because they are submerged in the water and last longer. They can also be sealed with an airtight lid, and they are quieter. This will reduce noise and mute the sound of the pump operating.

BLOCKING

The best defense against clogged pump is to remove the debris that is entering the system. By using an airtight lid or grate to secure the sump pump basin, you can stop small animals, sticks, and stray leaves from falling into the pit. Additionally, it will shield the pump from being harmed by objects from your basement, such as tennis balls, tools, and nails and screws, rolling down into the pit and damaging it. If a downspout is used to deliver water to the sump pump, adding a screen to collect debris and leaves will prevent the pump from clogging up. Commonly referred to as iron ochre, bacterial iron is a slimy, gelatinous contaminant found in many groundwater supplies and wells. The cause of this dense orange substance is oxidized ferric iron, which can clog a variety of home appliances, including your sump pump. You might need to shock chlorinate your well water in order to remove bacterial iron from your water supply.

ACTIVE CLOTHING

Something is definitely wrong with your pump when it is cycling in irregular bursts or taking too long to empty the water from the basin. An intermittent pump is frequently a sign of a malfunctioning check valve. The pump is being forced to continuously pump the same water since the water being displaced from the sump pit isn’t leaving the discharge line. Your pump may cut off for no apparent reason if there is loose wiring. Disconnect the pump and turn off the power if your pump cuts off for no apparent reason. Verify that all necessary connections have been made and that there are no loose wires by looking over the wiring. The pump may also be turned off by an electrical system that has shorted out.

AGING PROBLEMS

Even though it makes sense that an older sump pump would last longer before failing than a new one, a lot of homeowners wait until it’s too late to replace their pumps. You might have forgotten how long the pump has been down there and put off routine maintenance if it has historically operated satisfactorily. It is not worth taking the chance of a failure if your pump is close to ten years old, regardless of its performance. The pump’s efficiency will drop after ten years of use, and the parts will eventually begin to deteriorate and fail. It is far less expensive and simpler to replace a pump than to renovate a basement that has suffered extensive water damage.

Types of Metering Devices
Written by webtechs

How Do You Measure Water Height?

 

There are several ways to measure water height or water level, from straightforward manual methods to more sophisticated electronic and digital sensors. The accuracy needed, the kind of container or body of water being measured, and the particular application all play a role in the measuring method selection. Here are a few typical techniques for measuring water depth:

1. Dipstick or Measuring Stick: This is a simple and effective technique. A graded stick or rod is lowered into the water, and the marks on the stick are used to determine the water level.

2. **Float and Tape System**: This technique involves placing a float on the water’s surface and connecting its location to a tape or wire that has measurement markings. The float moves in response to variations in water level, and the tape is then read to determine the appropriate height.

3. **Float and Scale**: A float is attached to a vertical scale with markings, much as the float and tape system. The placement of the float along the scale indicates the water level.

4. “Hydrostatic Pressure Sensors”: These sensors work on the premise that the pressure in a liquid at a given depth is inversely proportional to the height of the liquid. An underwater pressure sensor is placed at a given depth, and the pressure reading is used to calculate the water level.

5. Ultrasonic water level sensors: These devices create sound waves that reflect off the water’s surface and then bounce back to the sensor. The distance to the water’s surface is calculated using the time it takes for the waves to return; this distance is then used to calculate the water level.

6. Radar water level sensors: Radar sensors employ radio waves rather than sound waves to determine the distance to the water’s surface. They operate on a similar basis to ultrasonic sensors.

7. “Capacitance Probes”: Capacitance-based sensors assess the variation in capacitance between the sensor and the water’s surface. The capacitance varies with the change in water level and enables the measuring of water height.

8. **Pressure Transducers**: Pressure transducers, commonly referred to as pressure sensors, can be positioned at the bottom of a water container or immersed. A reading of the water level is created from the pressure the water column is exerting.

9. “Tilt Level Sensors”: These sensors work on the theory of tilting or inclining according to the level of the water. The tilt sensor’s position changes in response to variations in water level, and this variation is utilized to calculate the water height.

10. **IoT-Enabled Water Level Sensors**: A few contemporary water level sensors have IoT features that enable remote monitoring and real-time data transmission for effective management and control.

Each of these approaches has benefits and is appropriate for particular purposes. It’s crucial to take environmental circumstances into account as well as aspects like accuracy, reliability, cost, and cost-effectiveness when choosing a water level measurement technology.

Types of Metering Devices
Written by webtechs

Types of Metering Devices

Displacement and velocity are the two most popular methods for measuring flow, and each one uses a different set of technologies. The oscillating piston and nutating disc meters are examples of typical displacement designs. Turbine meters and single- and multi-jet meters are examples of velocity-based designs.

Additionally, there are non-mechanical designs including electromagnetic and ultrasonic meters as well as meters made for specific purposes. In a normal water distribution system, the majority of meters are only intended to measure cold potable water. Design materials for specialty hot water meters can tolerate higher temperatures. Reclaimed water meters have unique lavender register covers to indicate that the water should not be consumed.

There are other electromechanical meters, such as automatic meter reading meters and prepaid water meters. The latter combines a mechanical water meter with an electronic measurement component and an LCD. The signal output for mechanical water meters often comes from a reed switch, hall, or photoelectric coding register. Data are sent to the LCD or sent to an information management system after processing by the microcontroller unit (MCU) in the electronic module.

A public water provider, whether a city, rural water association, or private water corporation, often owns, reads, and maintains water meters. In some instances, a utility may bill the owner of a mobile home park, apartment building, or commercial structure based on the reading of one meter, with the costs being divided among the tenants according to some sort of key (size of the apartment, the number of occupants, or by separately monitoring the water consumption of each unit, a practice known as submetering).

WATER DISPLACEMENT METER

Positive displacement, or “PD” meters, are the usual name for displacement meters. Nutating disk meters and oscillating piston meters are two popular varieties. In either case, the movable measuring element is physically displaced by the water in direct proportion to the water flow through the meter. The piston or disk moves the register’s driving magnet.

At the low-to-moderate flow rates typical of household and small business users, PD meters are typically fairly precise and typically range in size from 5/8″ to 2″. Displacement meters often are not practicable in big commercial applications needing high flow rates or little pressure loss since they depend on all water flowing through the meter to “push” the measurement element. The measuring element of PD meters is typically shielded from rocks and other objects that could halt or break it by an integrated strainer. PD meters typically have plastic, bronze, brass, or moldable plastic bodies with stainless steel and plastic measurement chambers inside.

WATER VELOCITY METER

A velocity-type meter calculates the flow rate through a known internal capacity meter. The utilization can then be calculated by converting the flow’s speed into its volume. Water flow velocity can be measured by a variety of meters, including single-jet and multi-jet jet meters, turbine meters, propeller meters, and mag meters. The majority of velocity-based meters contain an adjustment vane to allow for the meter’s accuracy calibration.

SEVERAL-JET METER

Multi-jet meters are frequently used in sizes between 5/8″ and 2″ for home and small commercial users since they are particularly precise in tiny sizes. The water jets produced by multi-jet meters are directed against an impeller whose rotational speed is governed by the water flow velocity through a series of ports around an interior chamber. Multi-jets are exceedingly precise at low flow rates, but as they lack the straight-through flow channel required for high flow rates used in big pipe diameters, there are no large size meters. The internal strainer feature of multi-jet meters often prevents the jet ports from becoming clogged. Typically, multi-jet meters feature bronze alloy bodies or outside casings, with contemporary thermoplastics and stainless steel used to make the inside measuring components.

CONVERGENCE METER

At low flow rates, turbine meters are less precise than displacement and jet meters, but the measuring element does not completely obstruct or substantially impede the flow stream. In comparison to displacement-type meters, the flow direction through the meter is often straight, allowing for larger flow rates and less pressure loss. For large business users, fire protection, and master meters for the water distribution system, they are the preferred type of meter. In order to protect the measuring element from gravel or other particles that can enter the water distribution system, strainers must often be positioned in front of the meter. Turbine meters are typically offered for pipe sizes ranging from 1-12″ to 12″ or higher. Bronze, cast iron, or ductile iron are frequently used as materials for turbine meter bodies. Plastic or non-corrosive metal alloys can be used as internal turbine elements. Although the flow profile and fluid conditions have a significant impact, they are correct under normal working conditions.

Specialized turbine meters called “fire meters” can handle the high flow rates needed for fire protection. They frequently have Factory Mutual (FM) or Underwriters Laboratories (UL) approval for use in fire protection.

In order to measure the amount of water flowing out of a fire hydrant, special portable turbine meters called fire hydrant meters are mounted to the hydrant. The meters typically have a 3′′ capacity and are manufactured of aluminum to keep weight to a minimum. They are frequently required by utilities for monitoring water consumption on building sites, for filling swimming pools, or in other locations without permanent meters.

COMBINATION METER
When high flow rates are required yet occasionally smaller flow rates also need to be precisely recorded, a compound meter is utilized. A check valve controls the flow between the two measuring parts of compound meters. Water is typically routed mostly or entirely to the high flow element at high flow rates. A turbine meter is often used as the high flow component. A check valve closes to direct water to a smaller element that can monitor the lower flow rates precisely when flow rates fall to the point where the high flow element can no longer record them reliably. A multi-jet or PD meter is often the low flow component. The utility keeps track of the overall amount of water consumed by summing the values recorded by the high and low elements.

Electrical flow meter
Although technically a velocity-type water meter, magnetic flow meters, sometimes known as “mag meters,” calculate the water flow velocity using electromagnetic qualities as opposed to the mechanical methods employed by jet and turbine meters. The electromagnets in mag meters must be powered by AC or DC electricity from a power line or battery in order to function, and they use the physics principle of Faraday’s law of induction for measurement. Mag meters often have the advantage of being able to measure flow in any direction since they lack a mechanical measuring device. Instead, they employ electronics to measure and totalize the flow. Since there is no mechanical measuring element that can be clogged or damaged by debris flowing through the meter, mag meters can also be effective for measuring raw (untreated/unfiltered) water and waste-water. Since there is no measuring element in the stream of flow that could be harmed, mag meters do not require strainers. The majority of mag meters are built with either grounding rings or grounding electrodes to direct stray electricity away from the electrodes used to measure the flow inside the flow tube since stray electrical energy flowing through the flow tube might result in false results.

USING ULTRASONIC METER
In order to measure the water’s velocity, ultrasonic water meters use one or more ultrasonic transducers to send ultrasonic sound waves through the fluid. When the velocity of the water is measured, it is possible to determine the volume of water passing through the meter with a high degree of accuracy since the cross-sectional area of the meter body is a set and known value. Most ultrasonic water meters measure the water temperature as part of the volume computation since water density varies with temperature.

In water metering, there are 2 main ultrasonic measurement techniques used:

Doppler effect meters that use the Doppler Effect to calculate how fast water is moving through the device.
Transit Time meters are used to determine how long it takes an ultrasonic signal to travel between two or more fixed sites within the meter.
The design of ultrasonic meters can either be “clamp-on” or “flow-through.” Designs known as “flow-through” are those in which the water flows straight through the meter; they are frequently used in residential or commercial settings. For bigger diameters when the sensors are placed to the outside of pipelines, etc., clamp-on types are typically employed.

Residential meters can measure down to 0.01 gallons or 0.001 cubic feet, making ultrasonic water meters (if built in) often quite accurate. Additionally, because they don’t have any internal mechanical components that could break down, they offer broad flow measurement ranges, need no maintenance, and last a very long time. Ultrasonic meters have been utilized in commercial applications for many years, despite being relatively new to the American water utility sector, and are gaining popularity because of their benefits over conventional mechanical designs.

ADVANCED WATER METER
Depending on the type of payment, meters might be postpaid or prepaid. Electromagnetic and ultrasonic meters, as well as the majority of mechanical water meters, are prepaid models. Prepaid water meters allow users to prepay for a specific volume of water at a vending machine. On a piece of media, like an IC or RF type card, the amount of water credited is recorded. The primary distinction is whether the card requires interaction with the prepaid water meter’s processing section. In some places, the interface for entering the water credit on a prepaid water meter is a keypad.

 

Types of Metering Devices
Written by webtechs

How Does a Pump Station Work?

Water pumping stations are devices that can be used to move water from one location to another without the direct involvement of people or animals. These machines may circulate water in treatment systems, supply water to canals, and even drain water from low-lying land.

In these kinds of applications, water pumps are typically only taken into account if simple gravity-based drainage is not an option. It is uncommon to utilize water pumping stations to remove water from high sites because it is frequently more simpler to just dig a canal and allow the water flow naturally downhill to the appropriate gathering area. On the other hand, water pumping stations that transport water to elevated sites are fairly prevalent. Water pumping stations are necessary in this situation because, for instance, residents who live on hillsides must transport the water they use to their homes uphill.

What Function Do Water Pumping Stations Serve?

The pumping station needs to produce enough pressure to drive the water against gravity. When this pressure is reached, there will be sufficient pressure to transfer liquid at the required flow rate. This is a straightforward mathematical equation, and pumps are made to be programmable in order to make changing the water flow rate simple. The necessary data is entered into an electronic controller that is either directly connected to the pumping station itself or controlled from a remote location. The calculation takes into consideration all of the pipes (including their size), new fittings, elevation changes, and any other elements that can have an impact on the water system’s pressure.

When determining the pressure required to overcome the system pressure and start the water flowing, it’s important to take into account the dimensions of the pipe entrance, any directional changes in the piping (such as 45- and 90-degree bends), various types of valves, as well as the dimensions of any outlets along the system. The many qualities of the liquid that is to be pumped must be considered in this computation. Therefore, it’s important to consider the amount of friction that water causes on the piping as well as the roughness factor. Water and other liquids will have very little friction, but sewage and chemicals may be aggressive and require more force to pass through the pipeline.

Regulatory Issues Regarding Water Pumping Stations

Older water pumping stations may be found on many people’s properties in England and Wales, either directly beneath them or nearby. In the past, local governments or private owners constructed these devices. However, in England and Wales, legislation was approved in 2016 that gave local water companies ownership of private pumping stations. There are several outdated pumps that require extensive maintenance. Many of them were constructed during the Victorian era, and some of them are now protected historical landmarks.

The challenge of locating and cataloguing every pumping station in England and Wales is challenging, and surveying work is still being done today. If you have a pumping station on your property, it could be worthwhile to find out if the upkeep is the responsibility of the neighborhood water company.

Risk Reduction Through Water Pumping

Numerous threats to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors can be reduced with the use of water pumps. Lack of pumping causes stagnant water to accumulate in sewer systems, where it can harbor bacteria and diseases. In such a condition, hazardous gasses like hydrogen sulfide can accumulate and pose a serious risk to the populace if ingested. There is little risk of gasses building up as a result of stagnation because sufficient pumping ensures that the raw sewage is moving at a steady flow.

In densely populated places, insufficient pumping can also cause water to surge up from the system and flood basements and ground floors of buildings.

In the United Kingdom, water pumping stations are used to move water along canals, move groundwater, move water for hydraulic power plants, and provide public water supply and sewage services.

Why Choose Water Line Controls

All of our water level controls and water level control systems are assembled right here in the U.S.A. where we monitor every step of the process.

Sewage Lift Station Costs
Written by webtechs

What’s The Best Tank Level Sensor?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept that you’ve probably heard of if you follow technological advancement in the industrial sector. The IoT is fundamentally altering the game, and now is the time to participate.

But where do you even begin? Tank level monitoring is one example.

Tank level monitoring (TLM) is an excellent first step towards becoming familiar with the IoT, whether you’re tracking frac tank levels for a well stimulation project or monitoring a straightforward water tank. The objective of tank level monitoring, as with any IoT project, is to gather accurate and trustworthy data so that you can take action and produce results. People won’t trust your tank monitoring system if your data is inaccurate, lacking, or late, and you won’t receive the desired business outcomes.

Tank level sensors are the “bedrock” of any solution for remote tank monitoring. Your sensors are the first stop on the data route for tank level monitoring since they produce the information that eventually supports decision-making. Nothing else matters if your tank level sensors don’t get reliable data. The greatest analytics and most attractive dashboards cannot compensate for subpar tank sensors.

It’s true what they say: “Garbage in, garbage out.”

We wanted to discuss how to select the best tank level sensor for your project because of how crucial tank level sensors are to your whole tank monitoring system. You may purchase accurate and trustworthy tank sensors that generate excellent field data without spending a fortune with a little help.

Five Typical Tank Level Sensor Types
Tank level sensors come in five different categories:

water-pressure sensors
ultrasound detectors
Infrared sensors
Float detectors
Sensitive capacitors

Your application will determine which tank level sensor is ideal, so we’ll outline the main benefits and drawbacks of each sensor to assist you in making an informed decision for your tank level monitoring project.

Sensors for Hydrostatic Tank Level
A tried-and-true method for obtaining affordable, precise tank level data is using hydrostatic tank level sensors. These sensors are used to gauge the fluid column’s hydrostatic pressure. Typically, hydrostatics are mounted to discharge piping at the bottom of tanks, submerged in the liquid at the tank bottom.

Hydrostatic tank level sensors can be installed in various types of tanks without the need to create a new sensor because they are affordable, accurate, power-efficient, and have variable ranges.

Unfortunately, because hydrostatic sensors are frequently entirely submerged in liquid, they can experience greater failure rates. This can be quite difficult, especially with corrosive or caustic solutions. The cable gland, where fluids can enter and short circuit the delicate electronics that power the sensor, is one of the most frequent locations for failure in hydrostatic sensors.

Tank level ultrasonic sensors
Ultrasonic tank level sensors, as their name suggests, assess liquid levels using sound waves. They are installed on top of your tanks, use ultrasonic waves to “bounce” off the liquids’ surfaces, and gauge level by timing how long it takes to hear the “echo.”

The fact that ultrasonic sensors are non-contact, meaning they don’t make direct contact with the liquid in the tank, is one of its key advantages. They can operate well in tanks with mixers or other moving mechanical parts in the liquid, and you don’t have to worry as much about their compatibility with those fluids. However, the mixers must be turned off for accurate level readings because sloshing and turbulence interfere with ultrasonic sensors.

Additionally, the cost of these sensors is reasonable, ranging from $300 to $400 per sensor. If you want greater performance or hazardous area certifications, though, budget closer to $1,000.

The fact that ultrasonic sensors use a lot of electricity is one of their key drawbacks. They can need 10-100 times as much power as hydrostatic sensors, hence they are often not appropriate for battery-powered installations.

Additionally, compared to other sensors, ultrasonic sensors typically require more upkeep. They must be installed correctly, a dead band or “blanking zone” must be maintained between the sensor and the fluid, and the detecting element must occasionally be cleaned (certain fluids can produce a film that degrades performance).

Last but not least, noise interference is a major threat to ultrasonic sensors. The ultrasonic waves that travel to and from your sensors can encounter problems if there is foam or vapor present.

Tank level sensors using radar
In that they gauge tank levels by the amount of time it takes radio waves to travel between the sensors and fluid surfaces, radar sensors are comparable to ultrasonic sensors in this regard. Like ultrasonic sensors, radar sensors are non-contact, which appeals to operators. However, compared to their sound-based predecessors, radar sensors are more accurate and better equipped to withstand interference because of more precise electronics.

 

Radar sensors are often substantially more expensive when compared to the other two gadgets we’ve discussed so far. A competent radar tank level sensor should cost more than $2,000 in total. Radar still requires a substantial blanking zone between the bottom of the sensor and the top of the tank despite the more precise electronics. It can be challenging to obtain precise measurements as tanks fill due to the fact that light waves move so much more quickly than sound.

One advantage of radar sensors is their ability to measure fluid interfaces, such as the presence of oil in water. Even a small amount of emulsion between the interface can be taken into account by more sophisticated electronics while maintaining reliable measurements.

Sensors for Float Tank Level
Float sensors extend a probe into the liquids near the bottom of your tank, and they have continuous detecting elements along the probe that are activated by floats. Float tank sensors may be made to be extremely accurate using this approach. They can even monitor fluid interfaces by utilizing numerous floats for various liquid densities because they don’t suffer from noise or interference issues.

Float sensors, on the other hand, can be very pricey. The price of a float sensor is almost immediately inversely correlated with tank height. You might pay $1,000–$2,000 for shorter tanks (less than 5 feet tall). On the other hand, larger tanks exceeding 25 feet may cost up to $3,000 or more.

“Sticking” is one problem that float tank sensors may have. Although some manufacturers’ recent technological innovations have addressed this issue in some circumstances, it can still arise in certain circumstances. For instance, floats may adhere to the probes in liquids that result in sticky or waxy substances, leading to inaccurate static level measurements. Investing in oleophobic probes that don’t stick or performing routine cleaning can assist guarantee float sensors are accurate.

Sensors for capacitive tank levels
Capacitive sensors will be the final category we discuss. These sensors consist of two electrodes, which are conductive probes that protrude into your tank. These probes track variations in capacitance when the fluid level in the tank rises and falls to determine the amount of fluid present.

The adaptability of capacitive tank level sensors is one of its main selling points. They can be applied to a variety of media, including solids and powders that aren’t liquids. They are also comparatively affordable. Capacitive sensors fall somewhere between radar/float sensors and hydrostatic sensors in terms of cost compared to the other sensors we’ve covered.

 

It’s crucial to be aware of the sensitivity and susceptibility of capacitive sensors before making a purchase. Capacitive level sensor readings can be impacted by temperature, humidity, and fluid type. Capacitive sensors provide another degree of operational complexity by requiring operators to calibrate equipment while tanks are both empty and full.

Keeping the Big Picture in Mind
All of this was just thrown at you. But let’s not lose sight of the main goal: you want better tank level information so that you can make business decisions more quickly. Choosing the right sensors for your tanks is crucial to achieving this objective.

To assist you in choosing the optimum tank level sensor for your application, we have created this summary matrix. For your project, use it to find the best tank level sensor.

Why Choose Water Line Controls

All of our water level controls and water level control systems are assembled right here in the U.S.A. where we monitor every step of the process.

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Written by webtechs

Why Install a Sump Pump Check Valve?

Why Do Sump Pump Float Switches Fail?

Pumping Efficiency

When the float switch signals the pump to start, it forces the pump to push water through the valve, and out through the discharge pipe. When the water level drops, the float switch signals the pump to stop, stopping the water. Gravity then causes the water that is in the discharge pipe to drain back into the pit. 

The check valve is there to prevent the pump from having to re-pump that volume of water over again. Eliminating this issue will save on electricity costs. 

Pump Protection

Short cycling of a sump means that the pump turns on and off too quickly or too frequently. Short cycling causes the pump motor to run hotter. Heat is an enemy of electric motors and can shorten the life of a sump pump significantly. By installing a check valve, it will reduce the risk of short cycling, especially in smaller size sump basins. A check valve will extend the life of the sump pump, and save you money. 

Location

The most suitable location for a sump pump check valve is between 8″ up from the pumps discharge to approximately 12″ above floor level. Installation above the floor level is convenient for easy inspection, servicing, or replacement of the valve. You want to install a check valve 6″ above the pump discharge when installed down inside the sump basin to allow for the drilling of air release or weep holes to protect against air lock for sump pumps that do not have a built-in air lock prevention system. 

Always refer to the sump pump manufacturers installation instructions. 

Installing the sump check valve down in the sump basin below the cover can reduce the noise caused by water hammer if a standard gravity closing valve is installed, however, making inspections and servicing is not not nearly as convenient.

Improper Installation or Not Installing one at all

Not having a sump pump check valve installed causes the water in the discharge pipe to empty back into the sump pump pit. This makes the water level in the sump pit rise and a high water level can cause the pump to run more often, increasing your energy costs.

If the check valve is installed in the incorrect spot such as too high up on the discharge pipe, the pump will empty the pit during the run cycle but when it shuts off, the water below the check valve will drain back into the basin causing the water level to rise very quickly. When that happens, it will trigger the float switch to start the pump again right away, eventually wearing out your pump prematurely. 

Sump pump check valves are available in three basic types, shown in the pictures below. Each type is available in a variety of sizes and connection types.

Source

https://blog.boshart.com/why-are-sump-pump-check-valves-important

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