Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid movement. Flow can be measured in a variety of ways. The common types of flowmeters with industrial applications are listed below:
- a) Obstruction type (differential pressure or variable area)
- b) Inferential (turbine type)
- c) Electromagnetic
- d) Positive-displacement flowmeters, which accumulate a fixed volume of fluid and then count the number of times the volume is filled to measure flow.
- e) Fluid dynamic (vortex shedding)
- f) Anemometer
- g) Ultrasonic
- h) Mass flowmeter (Coriolis force).
Flow measurement methods other than positive-displacement flowmeters rely on forces produced by the flowing stream as it overcomes a known constriction, to indirectly calculate flow. Flow may be measured by measuring the velocity of fluid over a known area. For very large flows, tracer methods may be used to deduce the flow rate from the change in concentration of a dye or radioisotope.
Water metering is the practice of measuring water use. Water meters measure the volume of water used by residential and commercial building units that are supplied with water by a public water supply system. They are also used to determine flow through a particular portion of the system.
In most of the world water meters are calibrated in cubic metres (m3) or litres, but in the United States and some other countries water meters are calibrated in cubic feet (ft.3) or US gallons on a mechanical or electronic register. Modern meters typically can display rate-of-flow in addition to total volume.
Several types of water meters are in common use, and may be characterized by the flow measurement method, the type of end-user, the required flow rates, and accuracy requirements.
Our level sensors and controls aren’t just for use in residential potable water holding tanks; some of the other applications include cooling towers, sump pumps, wastewater, boilers, water storage tanks, and building fire protection water tanks.